Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

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Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

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Title Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field
URI http://doi.org/10.7802/1908
Primary Researcher Loukas Balafoutas;University of Innsbruck
Nikos Nikiforakis;New York University Abu Dhabi
Bettina Rockenbach;University of Cologne
Publication Year 2014
Availability Eingeschränkter Zugang
Contributor Thomas Lauer;University of Cologne;Aufbewahrungseinrichtung (Hosting Institution)
Subject Area Volkswirtschaftslehre
Abstract Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment,individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.
Geographical Area Deutschland / DE
Universe 447
Data Collection Mode Beobachtung
Interview
Licenses CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Publications ;www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1413170111

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